# Stress and Strain In Strength of Materials

### Definition of stress

The internal resistance offered by the body against the deformation is called stress mathematically.

Stress formula: Stress = Force / Area

### Types of Stress

#### Narmal or Direct Stress

The stress due to an axial force. It may be either direct tensile or compressive.

Narmal or Direct stress formula  σ = p / A

#### Shear Stress

The tangential force per unit area.
Shear Stress formula τ = F / A

#### Bearing Stress

It is the contract pressure between separate bodies.

#### Bending stress

Can be bending tensile or compressive stresses.

Bending Stress formula f b = M / Z
where Z - Section Modulus.

#### Stress due to Torsion

Torsion or twisiting moment results in torsional shear stress.

Stress due to torsion formula f s = M / Zp

where Zp is popular modulus.

### Types of strain:

#### Longitudinal Strain

The deformation per unit length caused by normal force in its direction.

Longitudinal Strain formula e = δ / L

#### Shear strain ( γ )

In case of tangential force change in angle measured in radius is call shear strain.

#### Volumetric Strain

Ratio of change in volume to the original volume. it is also know as dilation.

Volumetric Strain formula  εv  = δV / V

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