Thursday, December 24, 2020

Civil Engineering- Building Materials Types And Tests List

This post for building materials types and a list of materials tests. 

There are different types of building materials are used in Construction work mainly: 
  • Cement 
  • Sand (River sand/ M.Sand) 
  • Coarse Aggregates. (20mm, 40mm, etc)  
  • Steel 
  • Bricks/blocks 
  • Water 
  • Tiles 
  • Wood 
  • Aluminum/Upvc  
  • Waterproofing materials 
  • Plumbing Materials
  • Electrical materials


  • Main types of Cement: 
  • Ordinary Portland Cement [OPC]
  • Portland Pozzolana Cement. [PPC]
  • Rapid Hardening Cement
  • Sulfate Resisting Cement
  • Blast furnace slag Cement  
  • High Alumina Cement

Largely OPC & PPC are used in construction. Other types of are used mainly on a specific requirements.

Grades of Cement 

  • 43G OPC 
  • 53G OPC 
  • 33G OPC 
G refers to Grade 43/53 no refers to compressive strength of cement at the end of 28 days of cement cube casting and testing 43 N/mm2 PPC is referred to 33 grade of cement.

KeyPoints to remember on cement 

  • The density of Cement - 1440 Kg/m3 
  • Weight of 1 bag of cement - 50 Kg 
  • The volume of 1bag of cement -  0.0347M3 or1.23Cft
  • Storage space required approximately. 20 bags - 1cum space.

Test for Cement 

  • Field Test 
  • Laboratory Test

Field Test

  • Colour
  • Physical properties 
  • Presence of Lumps

Laboratory Test: 

  • Fineness test
  • Soundness test
  • Consistency test
  • Strength test
  • Setting time
  • Bulk density
  • Specific gravity
  • Chemical composition of Cement

Compressive strength of cement [ IS Requirements]

Grades 7 days
N / mm2
14 days
N / mm2
28 days
N / mm2
IS 2.69-1989 
16 22 33
IS 8112-1989 

23 33 43
IS 12269-1987 

27 47 53

Sand or Fine Aggregate

Types of sand Grain size Uses
Fine sand 0.125mm
For Plastering 
Medium sand


Coarse sand


Concreting work & 

However now use of river sand is being substituted with M.Sand is manufactured sand, from i.e powdered stones.

Test for Sand Silt content test. Test for Grading of sand. Rubbing of the test. Visualization test. Bulking of Sand

Fineness Modulus Range

Types of sand Fineness modulus range
Fine sand
2.2 - 2.6
Medium sand

2.6 - 2.9

Coarse sand

2.9 - 3.2

Generally, the sand having a Fineness modulus range more than 3.2 is not making good concrete.

Test for Coarse Aggregates 

  • Crushing test
  • Abrasion test
  • Impact test
  • Soundness test
  • Shape test
  • Specific gravity
  • water absorption test
List of IS code related to Aggregates Test

Grade of Steel

TMT bars —Thermo Mechanically Treated
Different Grades: 
Fe 415, Fe 500, Fe 550, Fe 600 

Where number denotes minimum yield strength in N/mm².

Yield strength - is defined as the stress at which the reinforced bar starts to exhibit plastic deformation.

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